Why is it not possible to break the laws of physics and invent a permanent mobile – a machine that will work forever?
Source: SmartLife / ASML
In free translation, perpetual motion means a movement that is infinitely long lasting.
By definition, a perpetum mobile is a speculative machine that can operate indefinitely without an external source of energy.
The second definition, which is a direct derivative of the previous sentence, says that Perpetum Mobile is, in fact, a machine that gives us more energy than an investment to get it started.
Both definitions are in direct conflict with the basic principles of nature that describe the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and scientists are very specific about this.
The first law of thermodynamics is similar to the law of conservation of energy. Just as energy cannot be destroyed or created in a closed system, so the first principle of thermodynamics states that the change of internal energy in an isolated system is equal to the total work and heat emitted.
The second principle of thermodynamics is also strict about a machine that generates an infinite amount of energy. In essence, this principle tells us that heat only moves spontaneously from a hot place to a cold place, that is, as a physicist would say, entropy (a disorder of the system) only increases. It is not possible to convert thermal energy into mechanical work without loss.
For scientists, the fact that the system works without an external energy source is very important, at least when they argue with the free constructor, because there are many instances where at first glance we can say that they are infinitely fast, but still not permanent mobile phones.
So, for example, looking at the movements of celestial objects, we can say at first glance that they move infinitely without an external source of energy. However, it is clear that there is a gravitational interaction between space objects, solar wind, heat, and electromagnetic radiation. Water powered machines are also not permanently mobile. Although they can transfer theoretically indefinitely, they draw their energy from an external source.
Scientists claim that there is still no discovery that meets all the requirements to call it a perpetum mobile. Designers, on the other hand, believe that some of their inventions are more powerful than their investment, not counting gravity, friction and the like. This does not mean that such inventions are not useful or intelligent, because if it were not for such efforts, we would not have some of the revolutionary inventions we use today. Therefore, the debate remains open.
Parpetum Mobile Key: Why is it not possible to invent a machine that will work forever?
Inventors who (they thought) have created a perpetual mobile
Although the model of nature that we have adopted so far has proved to be accurate, there is a possibility that any invention or event will dispel today’s perceptions of nature. One of the first attempts to create an infinitely moving instrument was the famous sculptor’s wheel, built by an Indian mathematician of the same name in 1159, the magazine reported. National Geographic In context Elementarium.
The wheels were half-filled bottles of mercury. The mercury in the bottle also moved as the wheel turned, so one part of the wheel was always heavier than the other. This type of wheel had to rotate indefinitely after the initial start.
Today’s designers of infinite machines based their inventions largely on the principles of magnetism and electromagnetic motors. The first of such efforts, which became the basic principle for all other magnetic machines that tried to give renewable energy, was experimented with a magnet, a metal ball and a steep plane designed by Bishop John Wilkins.
This system has a strong magnet at the top that pulls the ball along the plane above. The ball then enters the upper passage of this plane and otherwise falls to the bottom, from where the magnet pulls it again. Wilkins never built this system because a strong magnet always attracts the ball too much and it cannot climb strong enough. This question still bothers designers today, but a lot of effort is put into this principle.
Science does not allow permanent mobile
The laws of physics are very clear – the eternal mobile, as scientists tell us, is simply not possible. In all the cases shown so far an infinite machine comes out of the title race which gives more than the energy invested.
Constructors usually forget about the heat emitted due to friction or similar effects or external influences, i.e. external energy sources. That includes gravity. For a system to be permanently mobile, it must be isolated, at least when it comes to the energy that affects their functionality. Thus, any system that uses gravity is not technically independent.
Designers want to lose the system at any cost and eventually build this famous machine. The U.S. Patent Office has officially refused to finance a permanent mobile project without a functional prototype.
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